The Council of Europe's Common European Framework of Reference for Languages provides a comprehensive recommendation for language learners and educators that makes learners' language acquisition, language use and language proficiency transparent and comparable.
The CEFR provides a common basis for the development of target-language curricula, curriculum guidelines, textbooks and credentials in European language work and enables their inter-linguistic comparability. He follows the action and task-oriented approach, according to which language learners are seen as linguists in a social context.
It also pursues the language policy objective of promoting multilingualism and individual multilingualism, thereby also contributing to the strengthening of international cooperation in the field of modern languages. Even beyond Europe, the GER is being received.
The CEFR defines a total of six levels (A1-C2), in which all partial qualifications of language proficiency are described.
For these six levels of the CEFR, formulations are defined that define all the sub-skills (listening comprehension, reading, writing and speaking) of language competences to be met by learners whose goal is to use a language for communicative purposes.
I can understand familiar words and very simple sentences that relate to myself, my family, or to specific things around me, provided it is spoken slowly and clearly.
I can understand individual familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on signs, posters or in catalogs.
I can communicate in a simple way if the other person is willing to slow down or say something else, helping me to formulate what I'm trying to say.
I can ask and answer simple questions, as long as they are immediately necessary and very familiar topics. I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe people I know and to describe where I live.
I can write a short simple postcard, eg holiday greetings.
I can enter on forms, eg in hotels, name, address, nationality and so on.
I can understand individual sentences and the most common words when it comes to things that are important to me (eg very simple information about the person and the family, shopping, work, the surrounding area). I understand the essence of short, clear and simple messages and statements.
I can read very short, simple texts. I can find concrete, predictable information in simple everyday texts (eg advertisements, leaflets, menus or timetables) and I can understand short, simple personal letters.
I can communicate in simple, routine situations that involve a simple, direct exchange of information and familiar topics and activities. I can have a very short conversation, but usually I do not understand enough to keep the conversation going. I can do it with a series of sentences and with simple means. For example, describe my family, other people, my living situation, my education, and my current or last job.
I can write short, simple notes and messages.
I can write a very simple personal letter, eg. B. to thank me for something.
I can understand the main points when using clear standard language and when it comes to familiar things from work, school, leisure, and so on.
I can extract the main information from many radio or television programs about current events and topics from my field of work or interest, if it is spoken relatively slowly and clearly.
I can understand texts in which, in particular, very common everyday or professional language occurs.
I can understand private letters reporting on events, feelings and desires.
I can handle most of the situations encountered while traveling in the language area.
I can participate without preparation in conversations about topics that are familiar to me, that interest me personally or that relate to everyday issues such as family, hobbies, work, travel, current events.
I can speak in simple coherent sentences to describe experiences and events or my dreams, hopes and goals. I can briefly explain and justify my opinions and plans.
I can tell a story or play the plot of a book or film and describe my reactions.
I can write simple coherent texts on topics that are familiar to me or that interest me personally.
I can write personal letters and report on experiences and impressions.
I can understand longer speeches and lectures, and also follow complex reasoning if the topic is reasonably familiar to me.
I can understand most news programs and news reports on TV.
I can understand most movies, if standard language is spoken.
I can read and understand articles and reports on contemporary problems in which the writer represents a certain attitude or point of view.
I can understand contemporary literary prose texts.
I can communicate so spontaneously and fluently that a normal conversation with a native speaker is quite possible.
I can actively engage in discussion in familiar situations and justify and defend my views.
I can give a clear and detailed account of many topics from my areas of interest.
I can explain a point of view on a current question and give advantages and disadvantages of various options.
I can write clear and detailed texts about a variety of topics that interest me.
I can reproduce information in an essay or report, or present arguments and counter-arguments for or against a particular point of view.
I can write letters to clarify the personal meaning of events and experiences.
I can follow longer speeches, even if they are not clearly structured and when relationships are not explicitly expressed.
I can understand TV programs and movies without too much effort.
I can understand long, complex texts and literary texts and perceive style differences.
I can understand technical articles and longer technical manuals, even if they are not my specialty.
I can express myself spontaneously and fluently, without having to search for words more clearly. I can use the language effectively and flexibly in social and professional life. I can express my thoughts and opinions precisely and link my own contributions with those of other people. I can present complex issues in detail, linking topics, completing certain aspects and completing my contribution appropriately.
I can express myself in writing in a clear and well-structured manner and present my views in detail.
I can write in letters, essays or reports on complex issues and highlight the aspects that are important to me.
In my written texts I can choose the style that is appropriate for the respective readers.
I have no difficulty in understanding spoken language, whether live or in the media, even when speaking fast.
I just need some time to get used to a special accent.
I can easily read virtually any type of written text, even if abstract, or content-wise, and linguistically complex, such as manuals, journal articles, and literary works.
I can effortlessly participate in all conversations and discussions and am also well acquainted with phrases and colloquialisms.
I can speak fluently and accurately express even finer nuances of meaning. When expressing difficulties, I can start and reformulate so smoothly that you hardly notice it.
I can present and discuss facts clearly, fluently and in the style of each situation.
I can build up my presentation logically, making it easier for the listener to recognize important points and remember them.
I can write clearly, fluently and stylistically according to the purpose.
I can write challenging letters and complex reports or articles that present a well-structured story, helping the reader to identify key points and remember them.
I can summarize and discuss specialist texts and literary works in writing.